大象的感情世界

他乡遇故知
(片中與Shirley見面的第一頭大象便是狗狗Bella的好友Tarra)
 Jenny是只被马戏团遗弃的大象,它正在田纳西州的大象保护区踱着方步。忽然,一头新来的大象Shirley吸引了它的注意。Jenny问了声好,可Shirley这只在动物园里孤独惯了的大象,对这种热情有点不适应。 Jenny却兴奋了,它高声问着,试图爬过隔在它们中间的栅栏。Shirley终于抬起了头,当它看到Jenny时,眼睛一亮,也高声叫喊起来。两只大象都异常兴奋。 原来Jenny和Shirley小时候便互相认识,在分开了20多年后,它们又见面而且彼此认出了对方。从此它们俩无论吃住都不愿分开了。大象的记性非常好,特别是好朋友,他们会记住一辈子的。

参观大象保护区

文/安迪·西门斯

选自《读者文摘》

自由和朋友

进入大象保护区你先要通过一扇阔大的门,那是环绕保护区周围的厚厚的带电网围墙的一部分。这是能把恐龙关在侏罗纪公园里的那种墙。小鸟在草场上掠过,作为世界上最大的陆地动物家园,这里有着不同寻常的宁静。

沿着那条几乎无法穿行的暴土扬尘的主林荫道深入,禁猎区又呈现惊人的景象。这是亚热带风景的盛宴。郁郁葱葱的甜美的桉树林和枫树林渐渐被灌木丛取代,由灌木丛过渡到丘陵地带,然后是一片大草原似的平原。这是大象完美的栖息地。令人吃惊的是,因为我们是在田纳西州的霍恩沃尔德,而不是缅甸或非洲那样的景象。

保护区是由卡罗·芭克雷和斯科特·布雷斯于1995年创建的。这两位前驯象员在马戏团和动物园见过大象所受的虐待和忽视,决心为大象建立一座可以颐养天年的憩息所。保护区将为象提供贝克雷认为能让象过得快活的三个基本条件:不被主宰的自由,自由漫步的空间,大量同伴。

在2700亩的保护区内,19头非洲象和亚洲象可以像在野外那样生活。动物园和马戏团里的象被一种叫做刺棒(顶部伸出一个金属钩的巢状木轴)的工具驱使,这种工具在保护区禁止使用。

相反,“我们建立了一套根本不存在奴役的制度”,芭克雷说,“我们给它们说不的权利。”

我们的摄影师首先亲历了这一切。芭克雷和布雷斯不会把我们带到大象面前,也不会撒干草引它们出来。是否靠近我们,他们让大象自己说了算。幸运的是,有两头象——雪莉和伯尼——终于出现了。它们甚至甜蜜亲昵地互相“挽着”鼻子。

芭克雷确定说,正如我们在《国家地理杂志》和电视节目《发现频道》看到的那样,象彼此之间十分友善.因为芭克雷接触的象遭受过虐待,她发现大象彼此间的心有灵犀会在一些难忘的情境中会表现出来,也包括这个不同寻常的故事。

在一个马戏团里,詹妮常常一天被拴上23个钟头,或者被塞进一节小车厢里从一个城市赶往另一个城市。在经受可以致残的腿伤后,她被丢弃在猫狗收容所,这里条件极差根本无法照顾象,更不用说一头生病的象了。一位动物保护组织成员和芭克雷取得联系,把詹妮带到了霍恩沃尔德。

和你在一起

自由是件美妙的东西,詹妮渴望拥有。她因腿伤被单独关了一天,但那证明对她来说就是压力。于是她被放到象群中,就在那时她与一位“故人”不期而遇。

多年前,当詹妮还是头小象时就与雪莉相识了,她们同在一个马戏团工作。但她们仅仅相处了几个星期,在分开之前雪莉担任詹妮的代妈妈。但那是23年前的事了,她们还会记得吗?

詹妮立即认出了雪莉!不久以后,霍恩沃尔德因它们相遇时互致问候的吼声和庆祝性的碰撞而摇撼起来。

雪莉和詹妮很快恢复了她们的老习惯:肩并肩地在保护区内闲逛。然而美好的时光总是短暂,几年后詹妮因腿上的旧伤复发而病倒。

当她虚弱得再不能在山野自由徜徉,詹妮挣扎着来到一个荫凉的山谷,找到一处被放倒的柔软的灌木丛,倒了下去。雪莉日夜伫立守候,用鼻子帮她的朋友起身,甚至帮她翻身。在詹妮的身旁还有两位保护区的朋友—-塔拉和伯尼。那时,四头象持续三小时的鸣吼使保护区内的每个生命都为之震颤。与动物相处多年的芭克雷从未见过比詹妮这充满喜悦的生命庆典更令人动容的场面。

第二天,也就是2006年10月17日,这些庞大的动物在继续鸣唱。歌声中没有一丝不安,只有慰藉。对雪莉来说这更加无法承受,将要再次失去詹妮的她躲到附近的小山独自悲伤。她离开后,伯尼和塔拉用拍打来安慰詹妮。它们就这样休息了一阵儿,伯尼安详地以渐强的鸣吼回应詹妮的呻吟,而塔拉则高声促鸣应和这二重唱。那夜,年仅36岁的詹妮死了,这个年龄在象中还属青年。塔拉和伯尼一整夜守在她身旁。詹妮的苦难结束了,然而雪莉的却开始了。

可以说象的心情会反映在鼻子上,因此容易看出雪莉无法承受詹妮之死的打击—-她的肩膀下坠,眼睛半闭着,鼻子拖在地上.她不吃喝也不鸣叫,无精打采.伯妮跟着她来到山里,它们在那里待了几天后又回到象房。那里,一头新象的到来引起了大家的注意。米斯提又是一只被马戏团抛弃的象。她极度活跃,善于交际,高兴时简直会跳起来。即使雪莉也不能不注意到她沙哑的声音和大声的欢叫。随着精神渐渐恢复,雪莉-这位保护区最年长体型最大的象,开始吃喝玩耍了,甚至还把鼻子从地上提了起来。她又回到了象群中,她属于那里。

在马戏团观看象用后腿站立或表演呼拉圈,很容易让人忘记这是一些敏感、有灵气的生物,对它们来说家庭就是一切。

它们是幸运的,在特纳西有这样以前从未有过的一个地方。

————————————————————————

A Visit to the Elephant Sanctuary

By Andy Simmons

From Reader’s Digest

Freedom and Friends

To enter the Elephant Sanctuary, you have to pass through a massive gate, part of the thick, cabled fencing that surrounds the perimeter. It’s the kind of fence that kept the dinosaurs locked inside Jurassic Park. Inside, small birds flit in the grass, and there’s an unusual stillness for a place that’s home to the world’s largest land animals.

Travel farther down the almost impassable packed dirt that acts as a major boulevard, and the sanctuary continues to surprise. It’s a banquet table of subtropical landscaping. Lush forests of sweet gum trees and maples give way to brush that seamlessly becomes hilly terrain, then opens up to savanna-like plains. It’s a perfect spot for elephants. Surprising, since we’re in Hohenwald, Tennessee, and not Burma or Africa as it might seem.

The sanctuary was started in 1995 by Carol Buckley and Scott Blaise. The two former elephant trainers had seen enough abuse and neglect at circuses and zoos to inspire them to create a haven where elephants could live out their lives. The sanctuary would offer what Buckley considers the three staples for a happy elephant: freedom from dominance, room to roam and lots of other elephants.

At the 2,700-acre preserve, the 19 African and Asian elephants in residence are allowed to exist as they would in the wild. Elephants in zoos and circuses are typically moved with a tool called an ankus, a nasty-looking wooden shaft with a metal hook protruding from the top. It’s banned at the sanctuary.
Instead, “we created a system where dominance does not exist at all,” says Buckley. “We give them the option to say no.”
Our photographer saw this firsthand. Buckley and Blaise would not bring us to the elephants, nor would they scatter hay in order to draw them out. Instead they gave the elephants the option to come to us. Luckily, two elephants, Shirley and Bunny, eventually did appear. And in a sweetly affectionate gesture, they even held trunks.
Yes, Buckley confirms, just as we’ve read in National Geographic and seen on the Discovery Channel, elephants show great compassion toward one another. Because the elephants she works with have suffered neglect and abuse, Buckley sees this empathy demonstrated in some unforgettable scenes, including this remarkable story.
A circus refugee, Jenny had often been tied up for 23 hours a day or crammed into small train cars traveling from one city to the next. After suffering a crippling leg injury, she was dumped at a dog-and-cat shelter, which was ill-equipped to care for an elephant, let alone an ailing one. An animal rights activist contacted Buckley, who brought Jenny to Hohenwald.

Freedom’s a wonderful thing, and Jenny was eager to experience it. She was kept alone in a yard for one day due to injury, but that proved stressful for her. So she was let out with the rest of the herd. And that’s when she stumbled on a friend from the past.

Jenny was still a calf when she and Shirley first met years before, toiling together at a circus. Although they’d spent only a few weeks with each other, Shirley assumed the role of surrogate mother to Jenny before they were separated. But that was 23 years earlier—would they remember?

Jenny knew right away who Shirley was. Soon Hohenwald was rocking as the two greeted each other with trumpeting and celebratory bumping.

Shirley and Jenny instantly fell into their old routine, wandering the sanctuary side by side. The good times had lasted only a few years when Jenny became ill, the result of her previous leg injury.

When she grew too weak to roam the hills and hollows, Jenny trundled toward a shady valley, found some soft, beaten-down underbrush, and lay down. Shirley stood vigil night and day, using her trunk to help her friend to rise and even shift her weight. Also by Jenny’s side were two other sanctuary friends, Tarra and Bunny. At one point, the four spent three hours vocalizing and trumpeting—the vibrations felt by every living being in the sanctuary. In all her years of working with animals, Buckley had never seen anything like this joy-filled celebration of Jenny’s life.
The next day, October 17, 2006, the great animals continued their vocalizing. There was nothing urgent in their song. It was soothing. Still, it was too much for Shirley. About to lose Jenny for the second time, she retreated to a nearby hill to grieve alone. In her absence, Bunny and Tarra comforted Jenny by stroking her. They rested like that for some time, Bunny calmly answering each of Jenny’s rumbles with a crescendo trumpet, while Tarra accompanied the duo with high-pitched chirps. That evening, at the age of 36—young for an elephant—Jenny died. Tarra and Bunny stayed at her side through the night. But whereas Jenny’s suffering had ended, Shirley’s began.
Elephants wear their hearts on their trunks, as it were, so it was easy to tell that Shirley was not coping well with Jenny’s death—her shoulders slumped, her eyes were half shut and her trunk dragged on the ground. She wasn’t eating or vocalizing. She was depressed. Bunny followed her to the hill, where the two stayed for days before finally returning to the barn. There, a new arrival had made her presence felt. Another circus outcast, Misty is a gregarious bundle of energy who literally jumps for joy. Even Shirley couldn’t ignore her raucous spinning and loud, jubilant trumpeting. With her spirits restored, Shirley, the oldest and largest elephant at the sanctuary, began to eat and play, and even picked her trunk off the ground. She was back with the herd, where she belonged.

Watch an elephant walk on its hind legs or perform a hula dance at a circus and it’s easy to forget that these are sensitive, intelligent creatures for whom the family unit is everything.

Luckily for them, there’s a place in Tennessee that hasn’t.

elephant02

大象是世界上最有感情的动物,它们知道救助被困的猫咪和狗狗,多么温和善良的巨人啊!

据英国每日邮报消息,众所周知大象是一种聪明的动物,尤其在记忆方面更有着不俗的表现。最近的一项研究显示,亚洲象常常都拥有一个庞大的社交网络,它们的朋友远比科学家们之前认为的多。研究人员还发现在社交方面,有些大象跟人类相似,如同蝴蝶一样飞来飞去接触各种个体,而有一些则坚守着自己的朋友圈子。 过去的研究表明,通常雌象与年轻的小象们生活在一起,而成年雄象则独立生活。但是新研究表明,即使雄象与雌象和小象们分开生活,它们仍然有着复杂的社交网,它们的朋友、亲戚和熟人等社会关系互相交织在一起。 宾夕法尼亚大学(University of Pennsylvania)的德席尔瓦(Shermin de Silva)博士说:“大象能够靠嗅觉来与远处的同伴联系。因此在特定时间里,大家看到的基本都是一个庞大的‘象群’社会团体。我们的研究结果显示,它们能够认识自己的朋友和认识一些新朋友,即使以后分开一段时间,它们也不会忘记。”

大象的語言

在热带草原上,旅游者或探险家有时能看见一群大象在一起奔跑,顿时响起阵阵奔跑的轰鸣声,还夹杂着大象的尖叫声和喇叭声。 对于旅游者来说,这种情景如同大象上演的一出精彩剧目,同时也是非洲野生生物令人震撼的证据。但是,美国生物学家乔伊斯·普尔知道,有比震耳欲聋的声音更精彩的事情发生了。普尔是在肯尼亚长大的美国人,后来她去美国上学。

1975年,普尔在读研究生的时候回到肯尼亚国家公园做课题,从此就再没有回到美国,已经进行了28年的大象研究,她的主要课题是研究大象的行为和通信方法。 迄今为止,普尔发现了大象用于日常交流的70多种声音和160种触觉信号。大象的这些不同的通信方法被科学家形象地称为大象的“语言”, 普尔就是解读大象“语言”的专家。普尔通过研究发现,大象具有像很多的哺乳动物那样广泛的音域,并且能通过叫喊表达不同的意思,发表他们的需求和愿望,比如,保护防卫,危险警告,调整内部运动模式,吸引异性,增援亲属等。普尔发现大象不仅能发出类似吹喇叭的叫声,还能长声尖叫、呼喊、大吼,甚至还能通过让鼻子发出轰鸣或呻吟的声音。大象甚至能发出一些低沉的声音,这些声音大象能听到,而人是听不到的,研究者通过仪器接收到这些声音。 “大象是有极端茂盛地精力,而且富于表达的动物”普尔说,“在它们被分开而再次聚集的时候,感情和蕴藏在其中的活力会难以置信地强大。”如今,普尔正在领导一个研究小组进行“热带大象发声法工程”的研究,他们准备在3年内将他们的研究成果编纂一部解释大象“语言”的词典。普尔的大象“语言”研究是热带大象调查工程的一部分,这项工程是著名的大象研究人员辛西娅·摩斯和哈里·克娄兹在1972年提出来的。

在肯尼亚国家公园内,有1000多头大象供研究人员进行观察,有几十个研究人员在这里进行大象行为的研究,这个庞大的研究小组是世界上研究野生大象时间最长的研究小组。 早在20世纪80年代中期,普尔和康奈尔大学的生物学家凯蒂·佩恩就发现了大象的部分信息是通过次声波进行交流的,这种声音可以使得大象能在1.5公里之外进行交流。普尔认为,大象有精巧的通信系统,以便他们能够维持建立在亲缘关系基础上的复杂社会。凯蒂·佩恩还观察到成年大象能像人类那样有感情地和它的家庭成员进行交流。这些成年大象还能通过不同的叫声来识别它们在象群中的不同地位。除使用声音信号之外,大象也通过触觉、视觉和化学信号进行交流。 但是,研究人员还观察到一些大象甚至能在10多公里之外进行相互交流,显然,声音和化学信号都不能传递到这么远的。这个现象一直迷惑了生物学家很长时间。直到近几年,斯坦福大学生物学家奥康内尔·罗德威尔才注意到大象爱用脚蹬地的行为,当初,他对大象的这种异常的行为他最初比较迷惑。后来他进行了进一步的研究,才发现大象是通过蹬地发出的地震波进行远距离交流,不同情况下蹬地的轻重和节奏的差异代表了传递的不同信号之间的内容差异。

偉大的母愛

这恐怕是让人一生难忘的动物大救援。这一幕发生在非洲津巴布韦,大象母女被困泥潭,而泥就要干了。救援人员成功救出小象, 但小象不忍离开妈妈;人工无法救 出成年的母象,而象妈妈却挣扎求生,竟独自脱离危险。原来象妈妈完全可以独立求生,但却不肯舍弃孩子,宁愿一同赴死,这就是无私的母爱

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